Characteristics of different cast steels.

Characteristics of different cast steels.

May 21, 2020

Cast steel is steel used for castings and is a type of casting alloy. Cast steel is a method for industrial production of parts and components and a method widely used. According to the different carbon content, cast steel can be divided into different types of cast steel. Carbon cast steel is divided according to carbon content: C≤0.20% is low carbon cast steel; C0.2 ~ 0.5% is medium carbon steel; C≥ 0.5% is high carbon steel. Cast steel can be divided according to chemical composition: carbon cast steel and alloy cast steel. Alloy steel is divided into low alloy steel and high alloy steel according to alloy element content. The following is the analysis of the characteristics of three different types of cast steel: low-alloy steel, special steel, and carbon steel.

    1. Cast low alloy steel: cast steel containing alloy elements such as manganese, chromium and copper. The total amount of alloy elements is generally less than 5%, which has greater impact toughness and can obtain better mechanical properties through heat treatment. Cast low alloy steel has better performance than carbon steel, which can reduce the quality of parts and increase the service life.

    2. Casting special steels: alloy cast steels that are refined to meet special needs. There are many varieties, usually containing one or more high-quality alloy elements to obtain certain special properties. For example, high manganese steel containing 11% to 14% manganese can withstand impact wear, and is mostly used in wear-resistant parts of mining machinery and engineering machinery; various stainless steels with chromium or chromium-nickel as the main alloy element are used for Parts working under high temperature conditions above ℃, such as valves, pumps, containers for chemical industry, or steam turbine housings for large-capacity power plants.

    3. Cast carbon steel: cast steel with carbon as the main alloy element and containing a small amount of other elements. Casting low carbon steel with carbon content less than 0.2%, casting medium carbon steel with carbon content 0.2% to 0.5%, casting high carbon steel with carbon content greater than 0.5%. As the carbon content increases, the strength of the cast carbon steel increases and the hardness increases. Cast carbon steel has high strength, plasticity and toughness, and low cost. It is used in heavy machinery to manufacture parts that bear large loads, such as rolling mill racks and hydraulic press bases. It is used to manufacture heavy stress on railway vehicles Parts that are subject to impacts such as bolsters, side frames, wheels and couplers.


    The amount of carbon content and alloy content determines the classification of cast steel and the characteristics of cast steel. The range of use of different cast steel is also different, so it is very helpful for the correct purchase of cast steel. The purchaser should carefully understand the characteristics and choose the steel castings reasonably.